Crescendo on Communalism
Addressing Delhi Congressmen on 6 September 1951, Jawaharlal Nehru remarked “It sounds nice to some people to hear that they will create a Hindu Rashtra. But the moment you talk of a Hindu Rashtra you speak in a language which no other country except one can comprehend and that country is Pakistan because they are familiar with that concept.
“As enshrined in our Constitution, we have proclaimed to the world that every citizen has equal rights whatever religion or caste or creed he may belong to and everyone is an equal shareholder in India’s freedom. You believe in this then, what these communal organizations say is wrong useless and harmful and ought to be suppressed.
“We have opposed communalism not only in minority communities, but also in the majority community. The argument applies to caste divisions and their functioning on the political plane. …It exists and encourages fissiparous tendencies and maintains divisions in our society, which undoubtedly weaken and prevent the growth of a real democratic spirit’’, he averred,
There has been progress towards secularism, but it has not been spectacular. Hindu law has been stripped of its scriptural formalism which made it a deadweight on the evolution of Hindu society, but secularism would mean a common civil code, and though Hindu personal law has been codified, personal law remains.
After going deep in its genesis, it is found that communal violence is triggered by secular issues like land disputes, eve-teasing and mixed marriages which acquire a religious tone as seen in the recent carnage of Muzaffarnagar in U.P. The elite is largely responsible for instigating communal violence and speak the language of hatred for the other community in public.
Communities need to be mobilized on the basis of primordial group identities like caste and religion. In India, unlike the West, society is organized into communities and not along democratic and individualistic lines. The middle class is the new target for mobilization. The 250 million of the middle classes are the ‘new emerging castes now forming the key to electoral success. The BJP formation has successfully tapped this caste.
Already, we have seen communal politics at its height in the late eighties. The BJP had adopted a sober programme in 1980 (of secularism and Gandhian socialism) lost 1984 elections very badly and could get as less as two seats in Parliament. Thereafter, the BJP launched an aggressive attempt to create a hysteria among the Hindu masses, especially the OBCs and Dalits, on the issue of Ram temple.
The slogan mandir wahin banayenge (we will construct the temple only i.e. at the site of Babri Masjid) made an impact creating a mass hysteria among the Hindus but a sense of great insecurity among Muslims. The BJP then began to touch new heights, especially in the Hindi heartland in 1990 when L.K.Advani took out a Rath Yatra for arousing the religious sentiments of Hindu masses.
When we ponder over the past few general elections and ask ourselves what the issues were, we invariably find that it is always something vague, anti-incumbent rhetoric, secular and communal issues. It’s never about specific economic policies or even a larger vision for the country.
Unfortunately, Indian democracy with a large illiterate socially, economically, disempowered electorate is still trying to define its identity as a nation. It might be decades before such a thing as caste ceases to matter in elections.